Five new types of diseases found in breast cancer patterns

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WASHINGTON: Researchers have used artificial intelligence to recognise patterns in breast cancer and uncovered five new types of the disease each matched to different personalised treatments. Their study applied AI and machine learning to gene sequences and molecular data from breast tumours, to reveal crucial differences among cancers that had previously been lumped into one type.

The new study published in the journal ‘NPJ Breast Cancer,’ researchers found that two of the types were more likely to respond to immunotherapy than others, while one was more likely to relapse on tamoxifen.

The researchers are now developing tests for these types of breast cancer that will be used to select patients for different drugs in clinical trials, with the aim of making personalised therapy a standard part of treatment.

The researchers at The Institute of Cancer Research, London previously used AI, in the same way, to uncover five different types of bowel cancer and oncologists are now evaluating their application in clinical trials.

The aim is to apply the AI algorithm to many types of cancer and to provide information for each about their sensitivity to treatment, likely paths of evolution and how to combat drug resistance.

The new research could not only help select treatments for women with breast cancer but also identify new drug targets.

The majority of breast cancers develop in the inner cells that line the mammary ducts and are ‘fed’ by the hormones estrogen or progesterone. These are classed as ‘luminal A’ tumours and often have the best cure rates.

However, patients within these groups respond very differently to standard-of-care treatments, such as tamoxifen, or new treatments needed if patients relapse such as immunotherapy.

The researchers applied the AI-trained computer software to a vast array of data available on the genetics, molecular and cellular make-up of primary luminal A breast tumours, along with data on patient survival.

Once trained, the AI was able to identify five different types of disease with particular patterns of response to treatment.

Women with a cancer type labeled ‘inflammatory’ had immune cells present in their tumours and high levels of a protein called PD-L1 suggesting they were likely to respond to immunotherapies.

Another group of patients had ‘triple-negative’ tumours which don’t respond to standard hormone treatments but various indicators suggesting they might also respond to immunotherapy.

AI has the capacity to be used much more widely, and we think we will be able to apply this technique across all cancers, even opening up new possibilities for treatment in cancers that are currently without successful options,” said, the study lead author, Dr. Anguraj Sadanandam. (ANI)